Dawn To Demise of Roman Empire: 2. Rome Rise as a Superpower
This is the second article in the series of Dawn To Demise of The Roman Empire. I recommend you to read all the article one by one. I will set up the links once I publish all the article. (First article: Dawn To Demise of The Roman Empire: 1. The Founding of Rome)
Rome was founded in 753 BC, but it would be 500 years before the Romans asserted their influence beyond the Italian peninsula. Although in those five centuries the city on the Tiber River had become the dominant political force in Italy. As its sphere of influence spread outside Italy, At this stage Rome would face new and more series competition than it had closer to home.
While Greece looked east toward the cradle of civilization at that time the Rome looked west. Some years later there is a city named Carthage in the western Mediterranean was a major entity. Carthage was founded by the Phoenicians in 814 BC. AS Rome want to sphere their empire and civilization in western Mediterranean, it put itself on a collision course with Carthage. The victor in this power struggle would win dominance over Western Europe and ultimately entire Mediterranean area. This was decided during the period of the Punic Wars. The Punic War was a series of wars between the Rome and Carthage between 264 BC to 146 BC. It includes three wars they are First Punic War (264 to 244 BC), Second Punic War (218-219 to 201 BC) and Third Punic War (149 to 146 BC). The word “punic” is derived from the Latin word Punicus, meaning Carthaginian, which itself is derived from the Greek word Phoenix, meaning Phoenician. The First Punic War (264-244 BC) was waged primarily at sea and resulted in a Roman victory.
The Second Punic War (218-219-201 BC) and involved one of the most amazing campaigns in military history. In this action, the Carthaginian general Hannibal (246-142 BC) defeated Rome’s allies in what is now Spain in 219 BC and set out to strike Rome itself. He crossed the Alps with his armies in 218 BC and scored a series of victories in northern Italy. Meanwhile, the Roman general Scipio (237-183 BC) had outflanked Hannibal. He had recaptured Spain and set out to besiege Carthage itself, even as Hannibal arrived at the gates of Rome. Hannibal returned to Carthage to protect the city and lost to Scipio on the Plain of Zama on October 19, 202 BC.
The Third Punic War (149 to 146 BC), during which Cartage was captured and completely destroyed by the Romans, was anti-climatic. It was the Roman victory at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC which marked the beginning of the power of the Roman Empire that would continue to reign supreme for six centuries.
Due to these wars specially the Punic Wars we can say that the Rome struggled in this period. After winning Punic War Roman Empire overcome as a superpower. And also after winning Macedonian Wars (which ran concurrently with the Punic Wars) and the defeat of the Seleucid King Antiochus III the Great in the Roman Seleucid War (Treaty of Apamea, 188 BC) in the eastern sea, the dawn of Roman Empire started. And Rome became a most powerful city in the dominant Mediterranean.
After winning wars Rome overcome as a superpower in the whole world. Then The Roman Empire became the Imperial Empire in 30 BC.